The compensatory frame of reference (FOR) aims to increase occupational performance and facilitate independence by utilizing compensatory techniques. It is used to compensate dysfunction in desired occupations, e.g., using assistive device or equipment such as Ergonon/Reflex knife during meal preparation, to compensate difficulty with using traditional knife. This FOR also includes environmental change, e.g., altering layout of living environment or using splints. These environmental changes sometimes are important for an individual to regain a valued role such as getting access to bathroom for bathing and grooming using wheelchair. The FOR aims to facilitate the clients’ independent functioning. It assumes that the dysfunction is considerably irreversible. The clients may find it difficult to accept the techniques at first as they may remind the clients of their lost functions. Therefore, compliance and engagement are important in getting successful outcome. Except physical injury, some clients who experience a stroke or other neurological disorder may be also suitable to apply this FOR. Compensatory strategies on memory or concentration may be applied to facilitate role performance. Task modifications are sometimes used to modify the task to compensate for the loss of function in order to increase independence. An educational approach is usually used in conjunction with this FOR to explain the purpose to help client understand the purpose and precautions. The ultimate goal is to use compensatory techniques to increase occupational performance and enable the clients to regain independence.
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
It is used to compensate considerably irreversible impairment in order to maximize independence within the constraints of injury.
Addy, L. (2006). Occupational therapy evidence in practice for physical rehabilitation. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rehabilitative frame of reference (FOR) considers rehabilitation as the process of facilitating patients in fulfilling daily activities and social roles with competence. This FOR is used with clients whose underlying impairments are unlikely to remediate and be considerable permanent, or the clients who lack motivation to participate in remediation. The theoretical basis of this FOR is that the client must focus on the remaining abilities, despite of any disabilities, to attain his/her highest level of functioning in the desired occupational performance.
The Children’s Hand Skills Framework (CHSF) is used as a conceptual guide to analyze and describe children’s hand skills in the assessment and intervention process. The CHSF divides children’s hand skill use into six major categories, based on the extent to which the hands contact objects/parts of the body or not. The first two categories are manual gesture and body contact hand skills that do not contact specific objects.
The Conceptual Model for Performance in Handwriting views that handwriting is important for one’s work and/or education domains of occupations. It considers the performance components, performance areas (functional performance), performance contexts, and the interactive relationship among them. Prerequisites to handwriting include performance components in sensory, perceptual, motor cognitive, and language functions, as well as integrations of these components.
The Meaning Perspectives Transformation Model is characterised by three phases: the trigger phase, the changing phase, and the outcome phase. These three phases move the process of meaning perspective transformation in the physical, emotional, cognitive, or spiritual dimensions. Critical self-reflection acts as a catalyst and represents as a moment of “readiness of change”. This allows clients to identify their assumptions, question meaning, and develop alternative ways of performing.