Model of Occupational Spin-Off is a model that describes occupational engagement as a mean to mental health. This model identifies environment as a place, occupation as the achievement, and person as the one to choose and engage in activities as a mean to achieve mental well-being. In the model, four levels of occupational engagements are identified. The first level is affirmation in social environment, indicating that person can find affirmation from social environment when the environment provides a sense of “being, belonging, and becoming” for the person. The second level is confirmation of competency within the environment. At this level, the person can engage in occupations actively with choices and gain a sense of mastery through the engagement in occupations. Person can find confidence from their successful experiences and thus, they will do and try different things. The next two levels are actualization of self-confidence in achievement and anticipation of ongoing engagement in the engagement. The person will acquire actualization and anticipation through gaining affirmation and confirmation in interaction with the social environment, and through the enjoyment of engaging the occupation in a friendly and safe environment. When all the four levels are achieved, occupational spin-off will be induced. Occupational spin-off indicates that the individual can experience subjective well-being and self-actualization through engagement in the occupations. This will motivate the individual to actively find and engage in occupations to sustain the well-being.
Domain of occupation
This model focuses only on social environment as the main factor of occupational engagement
Rebeiro, K. L., & Cook, J. V. (1999). Opportunity, not prescription: An exploratory study of the experience of occupational engagement. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66, 176-187.
The Life Balance Model (LBM) focuses on satisfying pattern of healthful, meaningful, and sustainable activities within context of an individual’s current life circumstances. The model purports that the composition of everyday activity should enable people to address these need-based dimensions, they are (1) meeting basic instrumental needs necessary for sustained biological health and physical safety, (2) having rewarding and self-affirming relationships with others, (3) feeling engaged, challenged, and competent, and (4) creating meaning and a positive personal identity.
Moyers Model is a model that helps to treat people with alcohol dependence. This model suggests that alcohol dependence is resulted from a complex interaction of causal factors. These factors may include genetic predisposition, negative character development/experience in family history, which lead to impaired interpersonal and coping skills, availability of alcohol, peer group affiliation and social norms that accept and promote use of alcohol.
The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) is an occupational performance model, which is evolved from the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP). The CMOP-E includes three main components: person, environment, and occupation. In this model, the inner part represents “Person”, and its center is the spirituality of a person. The other components surrounding a person’s spirituality are affective, physical, and cognitive abilities.
The Framework of Doing-Being-Becoming describes the theme of “doing”, “being”, and “becoming” in occupational therapy practice. In this framework, “Doing” refers to occupation and occupational performance of an individual, which is essential for the individual to interact with others and develop own identity, and to create and shape the society. “Being” refers to being true to self, that people are required to spend time thinking and reflecting themselves. This helps an individual describes and sustains the own roles.
This model aims to facilitate occupational therapists in accessing clients’ mind as an instrumental tool for occupational functioning and adaptation to the environment. It consists of three phases across 10 steps.