The four-quadrant model of facilitated learning (4QM) is used by teachers and practitioners in selecting effective learning strategies based on changing needs of the learners during acquisition of new skills. When occupational therapists use skill acquisition as intervention strategy, the 4QM provides a way of understanding, planning, and organizing the use of learning strategies. Through acquiring occupational performance components, the goal is for improve performance in the targeted occupation. The quadrant 1 includes strategies that use direct instructions from the facilitator to the learner to inform the goal, requirements, and nature of the task. Strategies include explicit instructions and explanations, demonstrations, physical patterning and/or lower order questions to learner with direct prompts. The quadrant 2 includes strategies that are less direct, which involve learner in the process of decision making. They are hint of suggestions, such as higher order questions, feedback, physical prompts, nonverbal prompts, and think-aloud modeling. The quadrant 3 includes external strategies that involve the learner reminding or prompting himself/herself using observable strategies. These strategies include prompting strategies, mnemonics, verbal self-instructions, visual cues, and kinesthetic self-promptings. The quadrant 4 includes internalized strategies for monitoring and evaluating self-performance, which are necessary for autonomous performance. The examples include self-instruction, self-questioning, and self-monitoring. At quadrant one, the learner requires the facilitator to indicate the nature of task and/or characteristics of performance, which identifies as dysfunction. At quadrant 4, the child can function, whose performance completed successfully with automatic internalized strategies.
Domain of occupation
Teaching and learning is the basis of intervention
Greber, C., Ziviani, J., & Rodger, S. (2007). The Four-Quadrant Model of Facilitated Learning (Part 1): Using teaching - learning approaches in occupational therapy. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, S31-S39.
Greber, C., Ziviani, J., & Rodger, S. (2007). The Four-Quadrant Model of Facilitated Learning (Part 2): Strategies and applications. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, S40-S48.
The Partnership for Change (P4C) model emphasizes the therapists’ partnership with the educators and parents to change the life and environment of a child who has motor difficulties (or developmental difficulties). The partnership focuses on the collaboration of building capacities for the teachers and parents in enhancing daily environment for the child. The core activities of occupational therapists under the P4C model are relationship building and knowledge translation with the school and parents. It consists of three steps. The first step is universal design for learning.
The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) aims to facilitate practitioners in understanding the impact of therapeutic use of self and to provide useful approaches for maximizing the positive power of the social environment in order to facilitate occupational engagement. Therapeutic relationships comprise of an interaction between client, therapist, desired occupation, and interpersonal events that occur during the interaction.
The dynamic interactional model of cognitive rehabilitation emphasizes that cognition is a continuous product of the dynamic interaction between the individual, task, and environment. Individual factor includes structural capacity (including physical limitation), strategies (including organized approach/routine/tactics), metacognitive processes (knowledge and regulation of own cognitive processes and capacities) and learner characteristics such as motivation and knowledge. These individual factors interact with other factors during information processing and learning.
Acquiring motor skill is a process that requires practices, feedback, and involvement of the learner. This frame of reference employs several principles from learning theory. It focuses on the child’s ability, characteristics of the task, skills required, environment, and regulatory conditions. Regulatory conditions are aspects of the environment that determine movement specifics, which are described in a continuum between closed and open tasks.
The Dunn’s Model of Sensory Processing proposes four basic patterns of sensory processing which are emerged from the interaction of the neurological threshold and self-regulation. Neurological threshold is a personal range of threshold for noticing and responding to different sensory events in everyday life. People who have low sensory threshold would notice and respond to stimuli more often because their neurological system activates easier and more readily to sensory events.