This model is based on the concepts of metacognition and awareness to view the relationship between the metacognition and awareness as a dynamic process. This model differentiates between one’s self knowledge and awareness that are pre-existing or stored within long-term memory (or called metacognitive knowledge) and the knowledge and awareness that is activated during a task (or called on-line awareness). In this model, metacognitive knowledge consists of two interrelated aspects: (1) knowledge of specific aspects of cognitive processes, task characteristics, and strategies in different areas of functioning, and (2) self-understanding of capabilities and limitations. On the other hand, on-line awareness refers to the ability of ongoing monitoring and regulating performance during the tasks and situations. The on-line awareness process includes conceptualization and appraisal of the task, task experience, self-monitoring of current cognitive state, and self-evaluation. As pre-existing knowledge and beliefs are relatively stable and on-line awareness is relatively unstable, they will interact and influence each other. For example, one’s knowledge, beliefs, and affective state influence the perception of task demands, expectations, and anticipations of the task and the outcome. The results of self-monitoring are compared to the expectations based on prior experiences. Discrepancy between expectation and performance may lead to adjustment of performance and selection of different strategies.
In this model, assessment of awareness includes comparing client’s self-rating with rating by a relative/clinician, or by the performance on the neuropsychological tests. The discrepancy between two assessment results is considered as a measure of degree of unawareness. To estimate different aspects of awareness, experimental methods, for example judgments of learning to measure monitoring abilities, can be used to evaluate paradigms of metacognition and metamemory. Task conditions that the client shows the highest levels of anticipatory awareness provides information for intervention. Intervention could include the use of activities that are familiar, emotionally neural and of a just right challenge, and could focus on increasing the client’s sense of mastery and control, meanwhile facilitating error recognition within structured experiences.