The Canadian Practice Process Framework (CPPF) consists of four distinct components, three of which are contextual (including the societal context, practice context, and frame of reference). The forth component is process based and is represented by the eight action points that guide the process of occupational enablement. The eight action points are: (1) from enter/initiated, (2) set the stage, (3) assess/evaluate, (4) agree on objectives plan, (5) implement plan, (6) monitor/modify, (7) evaluate outcomes, and (8) conclude/exit. By utilizing the CPPF, occupational therapists can identify these key actions to enable clients to reach their occupational goals. The societal context is represented by a large, all-encompassing outer box and comprises the practice context, which is represented by the inner box, including personal and environmental factors that influence the client-and-therapist relationship. A dotted line separates the society context from the practice context to emphasize that they are embedded within one another and have mutual influence. The frame(s) of references permeate the practice process as it will change with the demands of the client or therapist. The action points each require an action to component that could be the assessments, interventions and/or outcome evaluation. Specific aspects of the practice process are also explicitly stated in the CPPF. The CPPF offers flexibility, i.e., the flexible process which is presented by both solid lines (full linear pathway) and dotted action lines (alternative pathways). For each of the action point, the framework describes the key enablement skills and actions. For example, one of the key actions, for the “set the stage” action point, is to engage client to clarify value, beliefs, assumptions, expectations, and desires. The following tools for occupational-based enablement are suggested to organize professional reasoning, to guide the process of practice, and to monitor and modify the process. In combination of using the chart of Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement, this could facilitate occupational therapists in clarifying and confirming known information and information gap in understanding clients’ occupational performance and engagement.
Domain of occupation
The desired outcome of the CPPF is to enhance occupational performance and engagement and eventually to achieve client’s occupational goals.
Townsend, E., Polatajko, H., & Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists. (2007). Enabling occupation II: Advancing an occupational therapy vision for health, well-being & justice through occupation. Ottawa, Canadian: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists Publications.
The Canadian Model of Client-Centered Enablement (CMCE) is a model using visual metaphor to show the therapist-client relationship and client-centered enablement. According to the model, enablement is the core of occupational therapy, which helps guide reasoning and choices in the therapy. It is made up of two lines and a series of “enablement skills”. The two lines in the model represent clients, who may be individuals, groups, communities, organizations, or populations, and therapists, respectively.
The model of social interaction (MSI) is designed for occupational therapists to guide practice in social interactions within the context of activities of self-care, work, and play/leisure. It views individuals as an open system, who are influenced by actions and events within a variety of social and cultural environments, through a process of intake, throughput, output, and feedback. Each person’s internal makeup consists of three hierarchically arranged systems, including volition, habituation, and social performance.
The Client-centred Strategies Framework (CSF) aims to help clinicians in creating environments and contexts that facilitate client-centered practice. This framework consists of five categories; personal reflection, client-centered process, practice settings, community organizing, and coalition advocacy and political action. Each category provides strategies that can be used by clinicians in facilitating client-centered practice. The personal reflections category is the clinician’s process of gaining insight from clinical and individual experiences.
The IMOD describes how people understand and become competent in the occupational world. The interaction of a person with his/her occupations in the context of the environment across time results in systematic change in occupational behaviors.
This model is symbolized as an infinity symbol, which emphasizes that independence is a continuum without a start or an end. An individual’s independence can exist at any point within this continuum. Inside the symbol, there are two sides representing two themes, they are personal factors and environmental factors. The lighter (left) side of the model represents personal factors, which consists of personal attributes.