The Life Needs Model of Pediatric Service Delivery is a practice model that values the intrinsic worth, dignity, and strengths of individuals. This model focuses on the concept of need, emphasizes the values of family-centered services, and recognizes strengths and capacities of the child and family. It is used to guide pediatric service delivery to meet the long-range goals for promoting community participation and quality of life of children and youth with disabilities. This model starts with the short-term goals of services, which may include personal sphere of life, interpersonal sphere, and external sphere. Personal sphere of life includes improvement of physical, social, emotional, communication and behavioral skills. Interpersonal sphere includes encouragement of supportive relationships and environment for child, parents and other family members, and improvement of the clients’ function and competence in real-world settings; External sphere includes facilitation of positive attitudes, reduction of environment restrictions, and encouragement of availability of programs and service in the community. This model also includes three kinds of service programs: (1) childhood, (2) school age, and (3) adolescent and young adult services. These services focus on the clients’ foundational personal skills, applied skills in real-world, addressing clients’ and parents’ need for support, information and skill development, as well as addressing the community’s needs for information and education. When the service programs are undergone, it is aimed to reach the ultimate long-term goals, in which the clients can have increased community participation and quality of life.
Domain of occupation
Family members and the community should be included in the practice.
King, G., Tucker, M. A., Baldwin, P., Lowry, K., LaPorta, J., & Martens, L. (2002). A life needs model of pediatric service delivery: Services to support community participation and quality of life for children and youth with disabilities. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 22, 53-77.
This model comprises of four components including Assistive Computer Technology (ACT) service delivery (evaluation and training), the provision of ACT devices, education, and coordination and collaboration. ACT service delivery includes evaluation, training, and coordination of technology services. A service delivery team includes an occupational therapist, computer specialist, education specialist, and augmentative communication specialist. The team is responsible for conducting assessment and providing training for students who are in needs.
This model is a service delivery model that aims to provide a framework for occupational therapists to design and evaluate services for people living with HIV. It focuses on designing and evaluating interventions that target outcomes in activity and social participation. It comprises of the following components, prominent features of living with HIV, service delivery principles, promising interventions, and person-environment interactions across micro, meso, and macro levels of the environment.
The model of occupational empowerment explicates how living in a disempowering environment can lead to a person’s maladaptive habits and unhealthy living. A disempowering environment includes unfavorable circumstances and problems such as poverty, substance abuse, physical abuse, violence, limited social support, etc. Living in the disempowering environment may lead to problematic factors such as homelessness, joblessness, limited educational opportunities, which further lead to occupational deprivation.
The Partnership for Change (P4C) model emphasizes the therapists’ partnership with the educators and parents to change the life and environment of a child who has motor difficulties (or developmental difficulties). The partnership focuses on the collaboration of building capacities for the teachers and parents in enhancing daily environment for the child. The core activities of occupational therapists under the P4C model are relationship building and knowledge translation with the school and parents. It consists of three steps. The first step is universal design for learning.
This model presents a hierarchy of family-therapist involvement in occupational therapy services, with associated attitudes, specific knowledge, and skills that enable therapists to operate at each level.
The first level, no family involvement, outlines the traditional medical model of intervention. This level focuses on technical skills which are expected of entry-level therapists, with no awareness of the role of the family and client’s social context. It provides the basis for alternative types of family involvement.