The Model of Occupational Self Efficacy describes a process in accepting the consequences and occupational limitations for the individuals that suffer from traumatic brain injury. It consists of four stages. At stage 1 (a strong personal belief in functional abilities), clients usually develop feelings of frustration, demotivation, and anger due to the loss of daily life function after brain injury. Therapists will provide encouragement for the clients by creating a specific environment that can improve and develop the feeling of acceptance. Then therapists will analyze and examine the availability of rehabilitation and resources for the clients. At stage 2 (use of self), the clients can select the options provided by the therapists, and improve and increase their occupational participation through the intervention process. At stage 3 (creation of competency through occupational engagement), the clients can improve their knowledge with or without the assistance of the therapists. The knowledge includes medical precautions, use of assistive devices, workplace adaptation. Meanwhile clients can enlarge their social network. Finally, at stage 4 (capable individual), it is aimed that the clients can accept their conditions and that they are able to motivate themselves to participate in various kinds of roles such as returning to work. This process helps to alleviate the frustration, anger, and disappointment of the clients in order to develop their self-efficacy beliefs.
Domain of occupation
The model can be applied clinically at hospital, individual’s home and even workplace.
Soeker, M. S. (2012). The development of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Work, 43, 313-322.
The three-phase framework helps to view the life resuming process of people who suffer from long-term disabilities such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and whiplash, and to provide the right intervention at the right time. In this framework, the reestablishment of previous role(s) of the clients and/or the development of a new role are the most important. The role achievement is believed to be the primary goal of therapy intervention for people with long-term disabilities. The three phases are included as named for this framework.
The four-stage model for prevention program aims to structure prevention program for workers with musculoskeletal disorders, and to facilitate the workers in learning correct movement patterns, based on principles of model learning and ergonomics.
This model aims to contextualize challenges that youth with persistent concussion symptoms face during recovery by considering the person, occupation, and environment factors that influences occupational performance. The model suggests that the relationship between the amount of allostatic load and occupational performance is represented as a normally disturbed curve.
The Dunn’s Model of Sensory Processing proposes four basic patterns of sensory processing which are emerged from the interaction of the neurological threshold and self-regulation. Neurological threshold is a personal range of threshold for noticing and responding to different sensory events in everyday life. People who have low sensory threshold would notice and respond to stimuli more often because their neurological system activates easier and more readily to sensory events.
The model of occupational empowerment explicates how living in a disempowering environment can lead to a person’s maladaptive habits and unhealthy living. A disempowering environment includes unfavorable circumstances and problems such as poverty, substance abuse, physical abuse, violence, limited social support, etc. Living in the disempowering environment may lead to problematic factors such as homelessness, joblessness, limited educational opportunities, which further lead to occupational deprivation.