Occupation-specific Community Development Model for Family Mental Health
This model consists of a continuum with five steps, each facilitating change for subsequent stages of mental health in families that are socially isolated. The five steps are (1) developmental casework, (2) mutual support, (3) coalitions of mutual interest, (4) pro-active community participation, and (5) social movements. Development casework is an individual therapy focusing on occupational behavior and role acquisition through participating in daily activities. In cases of abuse, marital conflict, family violence, children and adolescence experience social isolation through inadequately learned occupational role behavior. The goal of this stage is to enable individuals to link together in the systems of mutual support. Mutual support is support groups (family, peers, and community networks) with mutual interest to address role inadequacies. By being part of the system and building greater cohesion, individuals are empowered with more control with their lives. Coalitions of mutual interest are coalitions of people with aligned interest (e.g., book clubs, art groups) and use their combined occupational roles to bring social change. Pro-active community participation is the consolidation of occupational roles, which facilitates coping with inequities of social and economic power, to understand the process of coping and how individuals generalize control into other areas of life. Clients are encouraged to participate and gain control in local organizations to combat the perception that children and adolescents are too inexperienced/irresponsible to run their own club. It is the means to achieve control of their club. Families start to make decisions about their child’s future, to combat with the perceived view that they are too dysfunctional to make decisions for their child. It is the way to generalize into other important parts of the family’s lives. The last stage, social movements, is the demonstration of role development through commitment to social change, which is the union of community development and health. Clients begin to see social commitment to social change as important, e.g., joining the School Boards of Trustees or volunteering in camps for socially disadvantaged children. With the feeling of increased control of their lives by taking parts in events that influences their life roles, this ultimately improves their sense of wellbeing and self-confidence. At this stage, community development and health coincide. Occupational therapists are frequently involved at the developmental casework stage and start to relinquish power to the group from the second stage. At the third stage (i.e., coalitions of mutual interest), therapists also have the role in listening carefully, using knowledge of local systems, and determining which issues have sufficient support to bring about the change.
Domain of occupation
The model aims to enable clients to progress from powerless to a sense of wellbeing and control over their own needs and subsequent life roles.
Scaletti, R. (1999). A community development role for occupational therapists working with children, adolescents and their families: A mental health perspective. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 46(2), 43-51.
The Client-centred Strategies Framework (CSF) aims to help clinicians in creating environments and contexts that facilitate client-centered practice. This framework consists of five categories; personal reflection, client-centered process, practice settings, community organizing, and coalition advocacy and political action. Each category provides strategies that can be used by clinicians in facilitating client-centered practice. The personal reflections category is the clinician’s process of gaining insight from clinical and individual experiences.
This model aims to conceptualize children’s underlying skills and behavioral elements characteristic of play, as well as the influences that both individual and environmental factors. Embedded in the play environment and cultural and familial milieu, this model includes developmental play capacities (cognitive, physical and social play skills) and individual play style (internal control, freedom to suspend reality and intrinsic motivation) that make up the child’s contribution to the play transaction. Play reflects the child’s cognitive, motor, language and social skills.
The Occupation-Centred Assessment with Children (OCAC) framework is a top-down, family-centered, ad ecological assessment approach that provides a holistic view of children and their occupational performance within their naturalistic contexts. OCAC focuses on occupational performance issues most relevant and important to a child and his/her family. These may include leisure/play, productivity/school, self-care/activities of daily living, as well as time use, roles, habits, identity, and activity patterns.
The Functional Model of Cognitive Rehabilitation (FMCR) applies general concepts from the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP). It aims to complement to the CMOP for choosing, organizing, and performing useful and perceived meaningful occupations in order to addresses the cognitive performance component. In the CMOP, the cognitive performance components include perception, concentration, memory, comprehension, and judgement. The FMCR recognizes the dynamic interaction between clients and their environments (physical, cultural, and social).
The Framework of Occupational Justice (FOJ) offers an occupational perspective of justice or injustice on everyday occupations. This framework emphasizes on the inclusion of every individual in an occupationally just word (i.e., the environment, such as community and government, in which the individuals can do what they decide to be the most meaningful and useful to themselves, family, communities and nations). It illustrates how the inter-relationships of structural factors and contextual factors support or restrict occupational outcomes and occupational rights.