Synthesis of Child, Occupational, Performance, and Environmental-In Time model (SCOPE-IT)
The Synthesis of Child, Occupational, Performance, and Environmental-In Time (SCOPE-IT) model aims to enhance children’s occupations and occupational performance. It considers children’s growth and maturity in occupational engagement by the course of development. Through participating in daily activities, children develop their occupations and enhance their performance. The type and time devoted in an occupation differs in one’s life course. As a result, the SCOPE-IT model has six assumptions,
Children are occupational and social beings,
The use of occupation is the underlying foundation of occupational therapy and is equally important both as means and as an end,
Occupational performance is influenced by personal, environmental, social, cultural, and temporal factors,
Occupational development occurs through a dynamic process involving innate drives and guided participation,
Engagement in occupation brings about change,
Occupational engagement influences health and well-being.
In evaluation, the SCOPE-IT model utilizes both top-down and bottom-up perspectives by considering the synthesis of the child’s occupational performance components, occupational engagement, and environment context for that specific developmental stage. Practitioners attempt to identify strengths (i.e., function), barriers (i.e., dysfunction), and motivational factors in the four areas (including work and productivity, play and leisure, ADL and self-care, and rest and sleep). Interventions using the SCOPE-IT model emphasized a holistic approach. Interventions include facilitating children’s intrinsic motivation, caregiver education, empowering the environment, selection of occupation, etc, in order to maximize the child-environmental-occupation fit.
Domain of occupation
Rest and sleep
Evaluation on person, environment, occupation with emphasis of temporal factor
Haertl, K. (2010). A frame of reference to enhance childhood occupations: SCOPE-IT. In P. Kramer & J. Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of reference for pediatric occupational therapy (3rd ed., pp. 266-305). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The Ecology of Human Performance framework (EHP) focuses on the relationship between several important constructs in occupational therapy; they are person, context, task, performance, and therapeutic intervention, in order to get a throughout understand of human occupation. The person construct is one’s experience and his/her sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychological skills and abilities. Then the person construct is surrounded by a circle symbolizing this person’s context (including temporal, physical, social, and cultural contexts).
The Partnership for Change (P4C) model emphasizes the therapists’ partnership with the educators and parents to change the life and environment of a child who has motor difficulties (or developmental difficulties). The partnership focuses on the collaboration of building capacities for the teachers and parents in enhancing daily environment for the child. The core activities of occupational therapists under the P4C model are relationship building and knowledge translation with the school and parents. It consists of three steps. The first step is universal design for learning.
The social participation frame of reference emphasizes the power of emotion to motivate and engage children’s social participation. Early relationship with parents provides the foundation for children’s social development, because children give meaning to their own emotions and learn strategies in regulating their emotional states based on how others and environment responses to their emotions. At the same time, the children regulate the caregivers’ behaviors and then they learn how to regulate their own and others’ emotions during future social interactions.
The Framework of Doing-Being-Becoming describes the theme of “doing”, “being”, and “becoming” in occupational therapy practice. In this framework, “Doing” refers to occupation and occupational performance of an individual, which is essential for the individual to interact with others and develop own identity, and to create and shape the society. “Being” refers to being true to self, that people are required to spend time thinking and reflecting themselves. This helps an individual describes and sustains the own roles.