The Dynamic Model for Play Choice emphasizes that a child’s choice of play is the result of a dynamic interaction among four characteristic categories, including relational (peers, adults, siblings, cooperation, shared or deferred choice), child (age, gender, ability), activity (level of difficulty, active/passive), and contextual (location, weather). The perceived fun activities with appropriate level of challenge are repeated because of the positive emotion which attached to the activity like fun and happiness and therefore, preference is emerged. Such the continued engagement contributes to mastery. This model describes a dynamic system with circular causality, indicating that all variables in the systems affect one another. This interrelationship between the characteristics of the child (which belongs to the child category) and the level of challenge (which belongs to the activity category) influences the perception of play. The match between the child’s ability level and the activity’s difficulty level, also known as the “just-right challenge”, is important in treatment using this model. The just-right challenge allows the child to persist in therapeutic activities and the emergence of patterns of preferred behavior. When there are patterns of preferred behavior, a shallow or deep attractor state emerges. Deep attractor states denote the emergence of behavior patterns that are highly preferred and repeated. The perception of fun is a source of deep states. The four characteristic categories and the concept of the idea of fun are important in influencing the child’s’ play choices. Interventions using this model emphasize playful therapeutic activities with just-right challenge, which often include relational like peers and significant others. In this model, therapeutic activities can be chosen by therapist, because intrinsic motivation of a child is viewed as what he/she perceives as fun instead of specific activity chosen by the child. If the activity is perceived as fun, the child would experience positive emotion then a preference pattern will be emerged, and eventually contributes to mastery.
Domain of occupation
The use of appropriate level of challenge in playful therapeutic activities is emphasized.
Miller, E., & Kuhaneck, H. (2008). Children's perceptions of play experiences and play preferences: A qualitative study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 407-415.
The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively.
Sensory Integration Theory aims to explain behaviors, plan intervention, and predict behavioral change through intervention, and provide specific intervention strategies to remediate the underlying sensory issues that affect functional performance. It purposes therapeutic interventions that incorporate sensation to affect multi-sensory perception to influence learning and behavior, as the central nervous system does not process sensory information in isolation.
The Infant Space Theory describes four primary aspects of how infants develop interactions with objects and space in their home environment. The first aspect is through gaze and visual play. Between 2 to 6 months, the emergence of gaze path, gaze search, and gaze alignment allows infants to use gaze path to search, scan for their mother and objects, and to align and direct gaze. They explore out-of-reach objects like moving contrasts and aircrafts, through vision.
The Meaning Perspectives Transformation Model is characterised by three phases: the trigger phase, the changing phase, and the outcome phase. These three phases move the process of meaning perspective transformation in the physical, emotional, cognitive, or spiritual dimensions. Critical self-reflection acts as a catalyst and represents as a moment of “readiness of change”. This allows clients to identify their assumptions, question meaning, and develop alternative ways of performing.
This model aims to describe the symbiotic relationship between occupation and the brain, as a chaotic, self-organized, and complex system. It assumes that changes in human condition do not follow a linear path. The model views occupational therapy as a complex intervention and a result of dynamic integration of several factors and unpredictable outcomes. The concept of neuro-occupation is complex and holistic, and aims to help occupational therapists to apply the non-linearity principles.