The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively. These constants are desired for mastery in occupational situations (person), demanded for mastery from the person in these occupational situations (environment), and these two constants interact and result in the constant for the interaction element, a press for mastery. The flow of occupational adaptation process begins with occupational challenges. It is then influenced by a person’s perception of the internal and external expectations for occupational performance. The person generates an occupational response correspond to the occupational challenge, evaluates the outcome, and then integrates feedback from the response for subsequent use. At the same time, evaluation and feedback integration are also functioning in the occupational environment element. The process is repeated as another occupational challenge emerges. Within the FOR, it also consists of the subprocesses. The adaptive response generation subprocess is the generation of response from occupational challenge and perceived role expectations. This subprocess is characterized by two components, an adaptive response mechanism that selects energy levels and methods, as well as the other component, an adaptation gestalt that configures the output of the mechanism into a plan for person involvement and later becomes an occupational response. Other subprocesses include the adaptive response evaluation subprocess to evaluate the response, and the adaptive response integration subprocess that provides feedback to the person in generating adaptive response and finally generates an occupational response for occupational adaptation.
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
Occupational adaptation holds a holistic perspective that three elements, person, occupational environment, and the interaction between the two, are involved in every occupational response.
Schkade, J. K., & Schultz, S. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach for contemporary practice, Part 1. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46, 829-837.
Occupational adaptation theory describes a process of internal adaptation. It aims to guide occupational therapy practitioners to facilitate clients’ ability to make adaptations to engage in meaningful activities. This theory emphasizes the interaction between the person and the environment. It states that the person consists of three systems (sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial) that interact with occupational environment (physical, social, and cultural).
This model aims to describe the symbiotic relationship between occupation and the brain, as a chaotic, self-organized, and complex system. It assumes that changes in human condition do not follow a linear path. The model views occupational therapy as a complex intervention and a result of dynamic integration of several factors and unpredictable outcomes. The concept of neuro-occupation is complex and holistic, and aims to help occupational therapists to apply the non-linearity principles.
The psychoanalytic frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes on the unconscious aspect of what is done and said, and it is embedded in an occupational therapy relationship model of practice - the Vivaio model (MOVI). The central element of the MOVI is the recognition of constant emotions that exist in the interdependent relationship between the three elements of patient, therapist and ‘doing’.
This model is a developmental model of three basic dimensions of self: biological self (starting when an infant first feels the need for food and warmth), social self (starting when an infant begins to perceive persons other than self), and temporal self (starting when an adolescence’s thoughts and aspirations for the future begin to motivate thinking and behavior).
The Sensory Integration (SI) frame of reference focuses on how the interaction between the sensory systems including auditory, vestibular, proprioceptive, tactile, and visual systems, provides integrated information that contributes to a child’s learning and adaptive behaviors. The key consideration is that children have the abilities to make adaptive responses to constantly changing sensory environments. The sensory integrative abilities include sensory modulation, sensory discrimination, postural-ocular control, praxis, bilateral integration, and sequencing.