The Lived Environment Life Quality Model (LELQ) aims to explicate the ecological complexities in using occupations to optimize quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This model focuses on factors that affect clients’ opportunity in occupational engagement, mainly on the social and physical environmental supports and barriers. It has two main domains, including the lived-environment domain (specifically for assessment and intervention) and the Quality of Life (QoL) domain (specifically for intervention goals and outcome). The lived-environment domain has three subdomains: caregiving microsystem (face-to-face settings of institutional homes), persons with dementia, and environmental press. Attention is the basis of daily activity situations (routine times for self-care, activity groups, etc.) which organize and structure time use. This model suggests the use of occupational profile (occupational history, occupational interests, and function) as a guide for intervention. Environmental presses exist as a continuum from occupationally enlivening (optimistic caregiving cultures and supportive physical environment) to occupationally deadening (unsupportive interaction between the social, physical, and cultural environment). The QoL domain has three subdomains that are strongly influenced by the environments, they are: time use (how the clients organize daily activity situations), ability to function (functioning level which is calibrated with consideration of the dementia severity), and relative being (emotional experiences and personhood). Occupationally enlivening presses support occupational engagement and therefore elicit positive QoL, and vice versa with occupationally deadening presses. Interventions in the physical, social, and cultural environments aim to create and sustain occupational enlivening presses. The ultimate goal of the interventions in the LELQ is to increase QoL of individuals with dementia living in institutional facilities by using occupations as a mean.
Domain of occupation
It is client-centered, ecologically-valid and occupational focused.
Wood, W., Lampe, J. L., Logan, C. A., Metcalfe, A. R., & Hoesly, B. E. (2017). The Lived Environment Life Quality Model for institutionalized people with dementia. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 84, 22-33.
The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model is a model that emphasizes occupational performance shaped by the interaction between person, environment, and occupation. The person domain includes role, self-concept, cultural background, personality, health, cognition, physical performance, and sensory capabilities. The environmental domain includes physical, cultural, institutional, social, and socio-economic environment. The occupation refers to the groups of tasks that a person engages in and meets his/her self-maintenance, expression and fulfillment.
The Fidler’s Life Style Performance Model focuses on knowing and understanding a person’s total activity repertoire within the context relevant to his/her life. This model provides practitioners a complete view of the client and his/her environment. It aims to bridge the gaps among the practice, philosophic constructs of holism, personal relevance, and quality of life.
The Conceptual Model of Leisure Engagement for Quality of Life in Nursing Home Residents (LEQoL-NH) aims to demonstrate the interrelationship between four factors: principles of occupational justice, continuity theory, leisure engagement, and resulting quality of life. Each is considered as important in improving quality of life. This model recognizes persons as occupational beings with valued lifelong interests/activities.
Cancer-related fatigues (CRF) is multifactorial and all potential contributing factors are needed to be assessed to understand the unique presentation on the individual’s life. This framework proposes a number of factors associated with CRF. Of these factors, the medical status of fatigue, which is predetermined and cannot be modified by therapists, includes disease-related factors (e.g., type of disease), treatment-related factors (e.g., treatment required), comorbidities, and underlying biomedical factors.
The Life Needs Model of Pediatric Service Delivery is a practice model that values the intrinsic worth, dignity, and strengths of individuals. This model focuses on the concept of need, emphasizes the values of family-centered services, and recognizes strengths and capacities of the child and family. It is used to guide pediatric service delivery to meet the long-range goals for promoting community participation and quality of life of children and youth with disabilities.