The Model of Occupational Wholeness focuses on the four dimensions of occupation: doing, being, becoming, and belonging, as well as how these dimensions lead to an individual’s wholeness, health, and wellbeing. This model is illustrated by triangles. A black proportionate triangle illustrates the hypothetical ideal relationship between doing (in the middle), being, become, and becoming (each is a corner of the triangle). On the triangle, life situation of a person is illustrated by two triangles, a green triangle (ideal situation wished by the individual), and a grey triangle (actual situation by the individual). The overlapping area represents how congruence a person currently is in terms of life participation and occupational wholeness. The more congruence between the two, the greater life satisfaction and feeling of wholeness (viewed as a continuum) experienced by the individual. However, the congruency of two triangles does not necessarily represent the best objective situation on health. This model suggests that being, becoming, and belonging are the basic needs that are met through doing. Occupational choices are limited by personal capacities and by environmental resources, and the complexities of the two factors may limit a person’s choice. After making choices, the person gives meaning to him or her obligation, whether it is healthy, and meaning making. Objective and subjective considerations and perception of the congruency lead to health and well-being. A long-term skewed profile can have an impact on health and well-being. The significance of self-awareness is also considered as necessary to make people aware of the link between what they do and whether their needs of being, becoming and belonging are being met satisfactorily. Occupational therapists analyze the clients’ life patterns in relation to their sense of being, becoming and becoming through doing, by questionnaire and/or qualitative approach to access for his/her wholeness, and to identify incongruence and its underlying problem(s).
Domain of occupation
This model aims to investigate on the relationship of the four dimensions of occupation: doing, being, becoming, and belonging.
Yazdani, F., & Bonsaksen, T. (2017). Introduction to the model of occupational wholeness. Ergoscience, 12, 28-32.
The Life Balance Model (LBM) focuses on satisfying pattern of healthful, meaningful, and sustainable activities within context of an individual’s current life circumstances. The model purports that the composition of everyday activity should enable people to address these need-based dimensions, they are (1) meeting basic instrumental needs necessary for sustained biological health and physical safety, (2) having rewarding and self-affirming relationships with others, (3) feeling engaged, challenged, and competent, and (4) creating meaning and a positive personal identity.
The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model is a model that emphasizes occupational performance shaped by the interaction between person, environment, and occupation. The person domain includes role, self-concept, cultural background, personality, health, cognition, physical performance, and sensory capabilities. The environmental domain includes physical, cultural, institutional, social, and socio-economic environment. The occupation refers to the groups of tasks that a person engages in and meets his/her self-maintenance, expression and fulfillment.
Model of Occupational Spin-Off is a model that describes occupational engagement as a mean to mental health. This model identifies environment as a place, occupation as the achievement, and person as the one to choose and engage in activities as a mean to achieve mental well-being. In the model, four levels of occupational engagements are identified. The first level is affirmation in social environment, indicating that person can find affirmation from social environment when the environment provides a sense of “being, belonging, and becoming” for the person.
Psychospiritual integration frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes the nature of spirituality, the expression of spirituality in every occupation behavior, the nature of spiritual occupation, and the influence of spirituality and spiritual occupations on health and well-being. This FOR defines that spirituality is constructed of an integral harmony of six qualitatively distinct dimensions and each dimension is considered as an ever-expanding continuum with increasing depth and vastness. The six dimensions are:
The Framework of Doing-Being-Becoming describes the theme of “doing”, “being”, and “becoming” in occupational therapy practice. In this framework, “Doing” refers to occupation and occupational performance of an individual, which is essential for the individual to interact with others and develop own identity, and to create and shape the society. “Being” refers to being true to self, that people are required to spend time thinking and reflecting themselves. This helps an individual describes and sustains the own roles.