Psychospiritual integration frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes the nature of spirituality, the expression of spirituality in every occupation behavior, the nature of spiritual occupation, and the influence of spirituality and spiritual occupations on health and well-being. This FOR defines that spirituality is constructed of an integral harmony of six qualitatively distinct dimensions and each dimension is considered as an ever-expanding continuum with increasing depth and vastness. The six dimensions are:
Becoming: volitionally directed growth of self through active doing and experience,
Meaning: sense of intrinsic purposefulness and vitality, rooted in personal, collective, or transpersonal spaces that inspire the process of living,
Being: pervasive quality that forms the foundation of one’s existence,
Centeredness: nucleus of one’s being, inner stability based on knowing and recognizing,
Connectedness: seeing self as a fluid process embedded within a larger interrelational context, and
Transcendence: comprises of two aspects: drive (the innate drive to find ultimate meaning and happiness) and goal (the state of inner freedom and a consciousness that has grown beyond all ego-identification, suffering, pain, and unwholesome actions).
This FOR aims to expand on current understanding on human occupation by categorizing spiritual activities under the term ‘spiritual occupation’, e.g., prayer, scripture, reading, sing, meditation, etc. This FOR illustrates the dynamic interrelationships connecting occupations. Missing or limitation in one or more of the dimensions influences spiritual occupation order and disorder, and spiritual fulfillment and deprivation. Spiritual disorder includes spiritual deprivation, community spiritual deprivation, impact of spiritual deprivation on individuals and communities, and spiritual latency (one or several dimensions of spirituality is not fully emerged or present in a person or a community).
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
It intended for use with persons and communities that experience spiritual deprivation due to or resulting in occupation-related problem, or for who wish to explore and realize their full spiritual latency.
Kang, C. (2003). A psychospiritual integration frame of reference for occupational therapy. Part 1: Conceptual foundations. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 50, 92-103.
The fundamental message of this Do-Live-Well framework is “what you do everyday matters”, and they are essential to one’s health and wellbeing. In this framework, there are four main sections, and each represents a building block to “Do-Live-Well". The four sections are (1) dimensions of experience, (2) activity patterns, (3) health and wellbeing outcomes, and (4) forces influencing activity engagement.
This model consists of three dynamic interacting dimensions: exacting (experiences of everyday occupation exceeding one’s actual skills), flowing (experiences with a reasonable match between skills and challenges), and calming (experiences of low challenge, relaxation, boredom, or apathy. These dimensions have different relationship with one another. All of them and their relationships are important to achieve balance in occupational life, and to promote health and well-being.
This model suggests that occupational therapists working with older adults with low vision should extend beyond compensatory techniques (e.g., modifying physical environmental and providing technology) to the community for social integration. Occupational therapists can accompany clients to nearby grocery stores, places of worship and community centers. Occupational therapists can also make recommendation to owners to eliminate environmental barriers and encourage clients to self-advocate.
This framework places spirituality as the core of the person. It regards an individual’s spirit as one’s being, unharmed by injury or illness, rather than as a component. In this framework, spirituality is depicted as two concentric circles surrounding the center. The first circle depicts human center and the second circle depicts personal worldview. The center is defined as the core, the heart, or what is means to be human.
The Meaning Perspectives Transformation Model is characterised by three phases: the trigger phase, the changing phase, and the outcome phase. These three phases move the process of meaning perspective transformation in the physical, emotional, cognitive, or spiritual dimensions. Critical self-reflection acts as a catalyst and represents as a moment of “readiness of change”. This allows clients to identify their assumptions, question meaning, and develop alternative ways of performing.