Model of the Process for Establishing Children’s Occupation (PECO)
This model of the PECO focuses on how children develop their occupations. It describes the process stages in which children go through as they initiate new occupations and continue cease or transfer current ones. Each stage is represented in rectangles. Within the pathway, the arrows indicate the direction of the process, which can go either way depending on children’s behaviors. The pathway starts from exposure and innate drive, then no initiation/initiation, to cessation/continuation, eventually ends with re-initiation/ transformation. Four categories of reasons that influence the process at any stage are represented by shaded ovals surrounding the pathway. These four categories are: parent views and values, resources, motivations, and opportunities. Throughout the lifespan, children go through this process hundreds of times, both simultaneously and consecutively, influenced by various reasons, i.e., occupational development. This model of the PECO could be used for further research on each of the category of influences on occupational development, with broader population, and exploration on more global impact of community, socioeconomic status, culture, and their effects on opportunities and resources, and thus occupational development.
Domain of occupation
This model of the PECO presents a flow chart and influencing factors of how children develop occupations.
Wiseman, J., Davis, J., & Polatajko, H. J. (2005). Occupational development: Towards an understanding of children’s doing. Journal of Occupational Science, 12(1), 26-35.
The Children’s Hand Skills Framework (CHSF) is used as a conceptual guide to analyze and describe children’s hand skills in the assessment and intervention process. The CHSF divides children’s hand skill use into six major categories, based on the extent to which the hands contact objects/parts of the body or not. The first two categories are manual gesture and body contact hand skills that do not contact specific objects.
The Canadian Practice Process Framework (CPPF) consists of four distinct components, three of which are contextual (including the societal context, practice context, and frame of reference). The forth component is process based and is represented by the eight action points that guide the process of occupational enablement. The eight action points are: (1) from enter/initiated, (2) set the stage, (3) assess/evaluate, (4) agree on objectives plan, (5) implement plan, (6) monitor/modify, (7) evaluate outcomes, and (8) conclude/exit.
The IMOD describes how people understand and become competent in the occupational world. The interaction of a person with his/her occupations in the context of the environment across time results in systematic change in occupational behaviors.
The Client-centred Strategies Framework (CSF) aims to help clinicians in creating environments and contexts that facilitate client-centered practice. This framework consists of five categories; personal reflection, client-centered process, practice settings, community organizing, and coalition advocacy and political action. Each category provides strategies that can be used by clinicians in facilitating client-centered practice. The personal reflections category is the clinician’s process of gaining insight from clinical and individual experiences.
This model focuses on resilience in daily occupations of the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder, which consists of four categories: (1) creating and re-creating accepting conditions, (2) finding solutions, (3) striving for balance among daily occupations, and (4) thinking about her child’s future. Resilience serves to help the clients in finding solutions to problems and strive for balance among daily occupations. First, creating and re-creating accepting conditions forms a solid base for the client’s resilience in daily occupations.