This model focuses on resilience in daily occupations of the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder, which consists of four categories: (1) creating and re-creating accepting conditions, (2) finding solutions, (3) striving for balance among daily occupations, and (4) thinking about her child’s future. Resilience serves to help the clients in finding solutions to problems and strive for balance among daily occupations. First, creating and re-creating accepting conditions forms a solid base for the client’s resilience in daily occupations. This base is easily being destabilized by problems in any of four underlying factors. These factors are: support from family members and others, family’s acceptance of the child, the mother’s effort to involve the father in child care, and family understanding about the child’s condition. The mother’s resilience is influenced by both internal factors and external factors within the environment. Both family cohesiveness and community supports are required for creating and re-creating accepting conditions, and creating accepting conditions facilitates the mothers’ resilience. Secondly, finding solutions includes spiritual activities, external resources, household management, sharing with others, and coping skills. This enhances their resources of resilience and available resources of resilience to cope with other aspects of the child’s care and with their own daily occupations. Thirdly, striving for balance among daily occupations includes planning, leisure activities, sharing tasks (e.g., with the husband), sleep and rest, and gathering with family. Lastly, thinking about the child’s future happens when the last three categories allow the mothers sufficient mental and practical resources to work on the child’s future, including planning for future, preparing for child independence, providing life skills training, and preparing financial resources. Occupational therapists can use individualized approaches to enhance various aspects of the mothers’ resilience by providing instructions, education, and skill training.
Domain of occupation
This model aims to help therapists in developing supportive approaches for mothers, family members, and related others of children with autism spectrum disorder.
Santoso, T. B., Ito, Y., Ohshima, N., Hidaka, M., & Bontje, P. (2015). Resilience in daily occupations of Indonesian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69, 6905185020.
The clinical reasoning framework aims to guide practitioners in selecting strategies in approaching sensory challenges in order to optimize participation of children with autism spectrum disorder. Several clinical reasoning considerations are based on this framework, and these include research evidence, client- and family-centeredness, practice contexts, occupation-centeredness, and risks. This framework emphasizes on the use of mutual information-sharing and coaching to empower families or teachers and develop their own solutions to supporting children’s participation.
The Model of Occupational Self Efficacy describes a process in accepting the consequences and occupational limitations for the individuals that suffer from traumatic brain injury. It consists of four stages. At stage 1 (a strong personal belief in functional abilities), clients usually develop feelings of frustration, demotivation, and anger due to the loss of daily life function after brain injury. Therapists will provide encouragement for the clients by creating a specific environment that can improve and develop the feeling of acceptance.
This model aims to contextualize challenges that youth with persistent concussion symptoms face during recovery by considering the person, occupation, and environment factors that influences occupational performance. The model suggests that the relationship between the amount of allostatic load and occupational performance is represented as a normally disturbed curve.
The Occupation-Centred Assessment with Children (OCAC) framework is a top-down, family-centered, ad ecological assessment approach that provides a holistic view of children and their occupational performance within their naturalistic contexts. OCAC focuses on occupational performance issues most relevant and important to a child and his/her family. These may include leisure/play, productivity/school, self-care/activities of daily living, as well as time use, roles, habits, identity, and activity patterns.
The Conceptual Model of Leisure Engagement for Quality of Life in Nursing Home Residents (LEQoL-NH) aims to demonstrate the interrelationship between four factors: principles of occupational justice, continuity theory, leisure engagement, and resulting quality of life. Each is considered as important in improving quality of life. This model recognizes persons as occupational beings with valued lifelong interests/activities.