The model of social interaction (MSI) is designed for occupational therapists to guide practice in social interactions within the context of activities of self-care, work, and play/leisure. It views individuals as an open system, who are influenced by actions and events within a variety of social and cultural environments, through a process of intake, throughput, output, and feedback. Each person’s internal makeup consists of three hierarchically arranged systems, including volition, habituation, and social performance. Social processing consists of three internal, non-observable processes, such as reception, interpretation, and planning, which enable individuals to take in and develop an action plan. During the social processes, each process is influenced and/or interacts with other variables. During the reception process, it interacts with the person’s volition and affected by the sensory organs. During the interpretation process, it is affected by the person’s volition, interactive style, and cognitive abilities. During the planning process, it is influenced by the person’s interactional style. After the social processing stages, a motor plan is executed before the social output. The social output of the process is socially-oriented occupational behavior. The output will effect a change in the environment and the change servers as feedback to the person, who can then modify the social behavior from the feedback received by sensory organs. Deficits in any of the variables or any process may contribute to impaired social interaction. This model is used use a guide for occupational therapists in assessing and planning effective interventions in facilitating social participation in important domains of occupation.
Domain of occupation
It serves as a guide to schematize social interaction to identify clients’ socially-orientated occupational performance deficits.
Doble, S. E., & Magill-Evans, J. (1992). A model of social interaction to guide occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59, 141-150.
The Model of Human Occupations (MOHO) is a model that describes how humans generate and modify their occupations in interaction with environment, which presents a dynamic open cycle system of human actions. The system considers information from environment and the feedback of performed action as input, and then goes through the internal part of system. The internal part consists of three subsystems: Volition, Habituation, and Performance. Volition subsystem initiates one’s action, consisting of three components.
This frame of reference adapts a top-down approach to identify visual perceptual factors that limit an individual’s daily participation, and adaptive and compensation approaches are used to facilitate engagement in meaningful occupation. It uses theories from cognition, developmental psychology, education, and Warren’s developmental hierarchy of visual perceptual skills. Visual Perceptual skill development is viewed to be developed from a hierarchy, starting from oculomotor control, visual fields, visual acuity.
The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively.
The dynamic interactional model of cognitive rehabilitation emphasizes that cognition is a continuous product of the dynamic interaction between the individual, task, and environment. Individual factor includes structural capacity (including physical limitation), strategies (including organized approach/routine/tactics), metacognitive processes (knowledge and regulation of own cognitive processes and capacities) and learner characteristics such as motivation and knowledge. These individual factors interact with other factors during information processing and learning.
Acquiring motor skill is a process that requires practices, feedback, and involvement of the learner. This frame of reference employs several principles from learning theory. It focuses on the child’s ability, characteristics of the task, skills required, environment, and regulatory conditions. Regulatory conditions are aspects of the environment that determine movement specifics, which are described in a continuum between closed and open tasks.