The Model of Human Occupations (MOHO) is a model that describes how humans generate and modify their occupations in interaction with environment, which presents a dynamic open cycle system of human actions. The system considers information from environment and the feedback of performed action as input, and then goes through the internal part of system. The internal part consists of three subsystems: Volition, Habituation, and Performance. Volition subsystem initiates one’s action, consisting of three components. First, Personal causation is one’s sense of effectiveness and confidence on performing action. Humans can be classified into pawn (or origin) i.e., having strong (or weak) sense of effectiveness in mastering themselves and the environment. Once the prediction of outcome is achieved, a sense of success and effectiveness is gained and vice versa. Second, Interests are one’s intention to seek pleasure from certain action, objects or events. Third, Valued goals are the outcome of how a person determines the importance of various occupational behavior. Habituation subsystem maintains daily routine and action pattern, as well as the order of performing actions. It consists of two components: (1) internalized roles which guide one’s automatic routines when acting as different productive roles and satisfy one’s demands of social environment and volition; and (2) habits which are formed when one repeats certain occupations in his/her daily life and works without the guide of conscious decision. Lastly, performance subsystem generates skilled action. After the interaction between the input and three subsystems, the system generates output (information and action), which provides feedback to the system and becomes new input. The whole system will make adjustment according to the feedback and modify the action at the end. This model can be applied in understanding clients’ formation of action during assessment, and modifying client’s action through the subsystems and input during intervention.
Domain of occupation
Kielhofner, G., & Burke, J. P. (1980). A model of human occupation, part 1. Conceptual framework and content. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 34, 572-581.
The model of social interaction (MSI) is designed for occupational therapists to guide practice in social interactions within the context of activities of self-care, work, and play/leisure. It views individuals as an open system, who are influenced by actions and events within a variety of social and cultural environments, through a process of intake, throughput, output, and feedback. Each person’s internal makeup consists of three hierarchically arranged systems, including volition, habituation, and social performance.
This model aims to describe the symbiotic relationship between occupation and the brain, as a chaotic, self-organized, and complex system. It assumes that changes in human condition do not follow a linear path. The model views occupational therapy as a complex intervention and a result of dynamic integration of several factors and unpredictable outcomes. The concept of neuro-occupation is complex and holistic, and aims to help occupational therapists to apply the non-linearity principles.
This European Conceptual Framework clarifies how occupational therapists (OTs) think about human action and how OTs can act to influence occupational performance of clients. This framework has four main characteristics: (1) it is dynamic, (2) it represents the perspective of the performer, (3) concepts are organized into eight clusters, and (4) it is organized into the person’s internal world, external world and the interface between those worlds. This framework organizes 25 terms that are commonly used by OTs, such as activity, occupation, and task.
The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively.
This model presents a hierarchy of family-therapist involvement in occupational therapy services, with associated attitudes, specific knowledge, and skills that enable therapists to operate at each level.
The first level, no family involvement, outlines the traditional medical model of intervention. This level focuses on technical skills which are expected of entry-level therapists, with no awareness of the role of the family and client’s social context. It provides the basis for alternative types of family involvement.