The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model is a model that guides therapists to use top-down, client-centered, and occupational-based approaches to assessment and intervention. In this model, assessment begins with an initial referral or a chart review. Therapists then meet and have an interview with clients in order to build the client-centered performance context and to gather relevant information and identify the clients’ goals. Next, a top-down approach is used to evaluate the situation with considerations of the clients’ diagnosed conditions. Therapeutic rapport also begins to establish and maintain a comfortable and unconstrained relationship of mutual confidence and respect between the therapists and clients. Identifying strengths and problems of the clients is the further step for the therapists to implement the clients’ performance analyses. This evaluates the demands of a task and the skills of the person by using standardized performance analysis, such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. After the performance analysis is obtained, the therapists can identify the actions that the clients do not perform well and clarify the possible cause, such as physical environments, social environments or societal constraints. Based on the performance analysis result, the therapists choose suitable intervention approaches or plan adaptive strategies in order to compensate the clients’ ineffective actions. Re-evaluating activity performance, refining actions, and selecting suitable approaches to remediate impairments will be implemented by the therapists in order to facilitate the achievement of the clients’ goals.
Domain of occupation
Collaboration and discussion with clients are highly emphasized in the process.
Fisher, A. G. (1998). Uniting practice and theory in an occupational framework. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 509-521.
The Occupation-Centred Assessment with Children (OCAC) framework is a top-down, family-centered, ad ecological assessment approach that provides a holistic view of children and their occupational performance within their naturalistic contexts. OCAC focuses on occupational performance issues most relevant and important to a child and his/her family. These may include leisure/play, productivity/school, self-care/activities of daily living, as well as time use, roles, habits, identity, and activity patterns.
The Allen’s Cognitive Disabilities Model (CDM) emphases on the integration of the cognitive functional ability and the level of activities that clients are able and willing to perform. Interventions using this model can take place individually or in group. When implementing the intervention, therapists consider each client’s needs and implement changes in task accordingly. In group sessions, each client’s cognitive mode of performance is considered individually and adapted to the modified task with appropriate level of required cognitive functional ability.
The Synthesis of Child, Occupational, Performance, and Environmental-In Time (SCOPE-IT) model aims to enhance children’s occupations and occupational performance. It considers children’s growth and maturity in occupational engagement by the course of development. Through participating in daily activities, children develop their occupations and enhance their performance. The type and time devoted in an occupation differs in one’s life course. As a result, the SCOPE-IT model has six assumptions,
The model of occupational empowerment explicates how living in a disempowering environment can lead to a person’s maladaptive habits and unhealthy living. A disempowering environment includes unfavorable circumstances and problems such as poverty, substance abuse, physical abuse, violence, limited social support, etc. Living in the disempowering environment may lead to problematic factors such as homelessness, joblessness, limited educational opportunities, which further lead to occupational deprivation.
The Occupational Performance Process Model is based on the concepts of occupation and client-centered practice; that is, therapists should solve the clients’ occupational performance problems through the client-centered approach. To facilitate clinical decision-making in this model, the first stage is to name, validate, and prioritize occupational performance issues through collaboration with the clients. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure is an assessment that can be used to identify the clients’ perception of problems and importance in their life.