This model consists of three dynamic interacting dimensions: exacting (experiences of everyday occupation exceeding one’s actual skills), flowing (experiences with a reasonable match between skills and challenges), and calming (experiences of low challenge, relaxation, boredom, or apathy. These dimensions have different relationship with one another. All of them and their relationships are important to achieve balance in occupational life, and to promote health and well-being. If any of the dimensions is too dominating, this would lead to imbalance, and may lead to destructive process (e.g., occupational deprivation, occupational overload) that impact health and well-being. Flowing experiences are a source of intrinsic rewards and feelings of competence, but if they dominate, the flowing experiences become too energy demanding or addictive that may lead to overload and social isolation. Calming experiences are needed for relaxation, but if they become dominate, the calming experiences become boring and depriving. Exacting experiences are the important source for personal development that trigger new flow experiences as the dynamic process continues. If exacting experiences are too dominative, one may experience stress, incompetence, and overload.
Domain of occupation
It aims to facilitate holistic analysis of the relationships and balance between the three dimensions.
Jonsson, H., & Persson, D. (2006). Towards an experiential model of occupational balance: An alternative perspective on flow theory analysis. Journal of Occupational Science, 13(1), 62-73.
The Life Balance Model (LBM) focuses on satisfying pattern of healthful, meaningful, and sustainable activities within context of an individual’s current life circumstances. The model purports that the composition of everyday activity should enable people to address these need-based dimensions, they are (1) meeting basic instrumental needs necessary for sustained biological health and physical safety, (2) having rewarding and self-affirming relationships with others, (3) feeling engaged, challenged, and competent, and (4) creating meaning and a positive personal identity.
The Model of Occupational Wholeness focuses on the four dimensions of occupation: doing, being, becoming, and belonging, as well as how these dimensions lead to an individual’s wholeness, health, and wellbeing. This model is illustrated by triangles. A black proportionate triangle illustrates the hypothetical ideal relationship between doing (in the middle), being, become, and becoming (each is a corner of the triangle).
Psychospiritual integration frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes the nature of spirituality, the expression of spirituality in every occupation behavior, the nature of spiritual occupation, and the influence of spirituality and spiritual occupations on health and well-being. This FOR defines that spirituality is constructed of an integral harmony of six qualitatively distinct dimensions and each dimension is considered as an ever-expanding continuum with increasing depth and vastness. The six dimensions are:
The fundamental message of this Do-Live-Well framework is “what you do everyday matters”, and they are essential to one’s health and wellbeing. In this framework, there are four main sections, and each represents a building block to “Do-Live-Well". The four sections are (1) dimensions of experience, (2) activity patterns, (3) health and wellbeing outcomes, and (4) forces influencing activity engagement.
This model is a developmental model of three basic dimensions of self: biological self (starting when an infant first feels the need for food and warmth), social self (starting when an infant begins to perceive persons other than self), and temporal self (starting when an adolescence’s thoughts and aspirations for the future begin to motivate thinking and behavior).