The Value and Meaning in Occupations (ValMO) aims to address the absence of theoretical structures to aspects of value and meaning in existing models of occupations. It adopts a person-task-environment triad, where occupation is viewed as the result of the transaction. It includes the role narrative in structuring an individual’s experiences embedded in daily occupation, which contributes to an ongoing personal story. Occupational value refers to the proximal experiences derived from occupation (e.g., sense of competence or enjoyment). It is essential to occupational meaning and life narrative. Occupational and life meaning are linked to three nested levels of occupation: macro, meso, and micro. The marco level is occupations that are considered as part of one’s life story, and they link with personal identity and generate a sense of life meaning. The meso level is single or groups of occupations, performed occasionally or regular basis to form a basis for routine or daily patterned action; this is where experiences or perceptions of occupational value take place. The micro level is single discrete actions that compose an occupation. With the linking aspects of occupational value and life meaning to each of the three levels; the levels can only be fully understood with reference to one another. For example, gripping a cup of drink may have little value without referencing to the value derived from the occupation of having breakfast and the capacity of that experienced occupation to be integrated in one’s life story. Occupational value comprises of three dimensions: concrete (tangible aspect of occupational performance, e.g., completing shopping task), symbolic (related to the social context), and self-reward value (immediate experience). The Occupational Value Assessment with Predefined Items (Oval-pd) is constructed to assess the concept of occupational value by directly assessing the three related dimensions of concrete, symbolic, and self-reward value.
Domain of occupation
This model asserts a complex structure linking value and life meaning to multiple levels of occupation (macro, meso, and micro).
Persson, D., Erlandsson, L. K., Eklund, M., & Iwarsson, S. (2001). Value dimensions, meaning, and complexity in human occupation-a tentative structure for analysis. Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy, 8(1), 7-18.
This model is a service delivery model that aims to provide a framework for occupational therapists to design and evaluate services for people living with HIV. It focuses on designing and evaluating interventions that target outcomes in activity and social participation. It comprises of the following components, prominent features of living with HIV, service delivery principles, promising interventions, and person-environment interactions across micro, meso, and macro levels of the environment.
The Lived Environment Life Quality Model (LELQ) aims to explicate the ecological complexities in using occupations to optimize quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This model focuses on factors that affect clients’ opportunity in occupational engagement, mainly on the social and physical environmental supports and barriers. It has two main domains, including the lived-environment domain (specifically for assessment and intervention) and the Quality of Life (QoL) domain (specifically for intervention goals and outcome).
The Accountability-Well-being-Ethics (AWE) framework incorporates the humanist and contextualist perspectives to create a balanced foundation of client-centered profession. The conceptual cores include sociocultural, well-being, social/occupational justice, promoting capabilities, accountability, qualitative stories, contingency, hope, solidarity, person directed, coach/partner, and facilitating empowerment, in contrast to different concepts of biomedical health care. This framework is structured for use in education, research, and clinical practice for occupational therapy globally.
The psychoanalytic frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes on the unconscious aspect of what is done and said, and it is embedded in an occupational therapy relationship model of practice - the Vivaio model (MOVI). The central element of the MOVI is the recognition of constant emotions that exist in the interdependent relationship between the three elements of patient, therapist and ‘doing’.