This model is a developmental model of three basic dimensions of self: biological self (starting when an infant first feels the need for food and warmth), social self (starting when an infant begins to perceive persons other than self), and temporal self (starting when an adolescence’s thoughts and aspirations for the future begin to motivate thinking and behavior). This model is derived from theories of human behavior, assuming that behavioral response depends on the person, environment, and time, and the response is influenced by previous experience and thus the current response also influences future responses. The concept of harmony is applied to the three dimensions of self. All three dimensions are of equal in size and in proportion to the outer circle which depicts the environment. It emphases that each aspect is of equal importance and that the maintenance of these proportions is essential. The ultimate goal of occupational therapy is to allow clients to have internal harmony and balance between the three aspects of self. The other essential element is the environment. It comprises of physical, cultural, and social environments. When assessing a client’s needs and planning his/her occupational therapy intervention, the goal is to ensure that the three aspects of self, with the three aspects of the client’s environment, are balanced. This model can be categorized as an “integrative occupational therapy model”. It is generic to all ages and conditions, with or without dysfunction, to help occupational therapists in organizing clinical thinking.
Domain of occupation
This model can be considered for use with the Model of Human Occupation, ontogenesis and adaptive skills, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure.
Dawson, F. (2000). The three-dimensional model of self: a Japanese model of practice. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(7), 340-342.
Psychospiritual integration frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes the nature of spirituality, the expression of spirituality in every occupation behavior, the nature of spiritual occupation, and the influence of spirituality and spiritual occupations on health and well-being. This FOR defines that spirituality is constructed of an integral harmony of six qualitatively distinct dimensions and each dimension is considered as an ever-expanding continuum with increasing depth and vastness. The six dimensions are:
The Model of Co-Occupation suggests that co-occupation is characterized by shared physicality, emotionality, and intentionality in an occupation with another person(s). Co-occupation is an occupation involving other person(s), which is interactive and responsive. Some examples are that students work together on a project or a mother puts her infant to the bed. Solitary occupations do not involve another person(s); some examples are ADL activities or playing solitaire.
The Value and Meaning in Occupations (ValMO) aims to address the absence of theoretical structures to aspects of value and meaning in existing models of occupations. It adopts a person-task-environment triad, where occupation is viewed as the result of the transaction. It includes the role narrative in structuring an individual’s experiences embedded in daily occupation, which contributes to an ongoing personal story.
Kawa model is a model that uses the metaphor of a river with different contextual elements to represent human life. The key features of Kawa model include water, river sidewall and bottom, rocks, driftwood, and space between obstructions. Water represents a client’s life flow or life energy. River sidewall and bottom reflects a client’s physical and social contexts which are inseparable with the water flow. Rocks represent the problems or difficult situations that hinder smooth water flow and they are usually difficult to remove.
This framework aims to assist occupational therapists in describing aspects of work functioning in work assessments on different situations. There are three separate dimensions of work functioning. Dimension 1 is work participation and society. Work participation is an individual’s ability and opportunity he/she has, to acquire and maintain a work position in the society, and to fulfill a worker role. The complex interaction between personal, environmental, and temporal factors affects a person’s work participation.