The developmental frame of reference (FOR) suggests that development is sequential, and behaviors are primarily influenced by the extent to which an individual has mastered and integrated the previous stages. This FOR views people as dynamic, developing, and people’s lives go through stages of growth and decline, which require necessitate adaptation by the individual. People develop at different rate, but each stage of development can only proceed normally if the preceding stages have been completed successfully. Incomplete development in area(s) of skills or life stage would influence subsequent development. This FOR includes six adaptive skills: sensory integration skill (ability to receive, select, combine, and coordinate sensory information for functional use), cognitive skill (ability to perceive, represent and organize sensory information for thinking and problem solving), dyadic interaction skill (ability to engage in a variety of primary groups), group interaction skill (ability to participate in a variety of primary groups), self-identify skill (ability to perceive self as an autonomous, holistic, acceptable person who has permanence and continuity over time), and sexual identify skill (ability to perceive sexual nature as good and to participate in long term sexual relationships). Mastery of skills to an age-appropriate level in all areas of development is necessary to achieve satisfactory coping behaviors and adaptive relationships. Occupational therapy prevents developmental of maladaptive behavior and skills, and promote growth and developmental links to close the gap between the expectation and ability through skilled application of activities and relationships. Assessments include interviews, observations, review of records, projective techniques, tests, and collaboration with caregivers to assess for disrupted or ceased development. Intervention techniques include activities, relationships, and environment, to facilitate the development of particular skills.
- Macey Cho
- Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
It emphasizes on assessing and intervening incompetent or maladaptive skills that are not mastered during developmental stages.
Creek, J. (2014). Approaches to practice. In W. Bryant, J. Fieldhouse, & K. Bannigan (Eds.), Creek's occupational therapy and mental health (5th ed., pp. 50-69). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
- Jennifer Creek
Primary Developer Email