The Occupational Performance Model (Australia) is a model proposing that people fulfill their occupational performance roles by engaging in routines, tasks and activities, in the domains of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest, in the process responding to internal and/or external demands of the environment. This model assumes that engagement in occupations provides the sense of competence, autonomy, temporal organization, and meaning of existence to individuals. It focuses on activation of person-environment relationship through participation in occupations. The internal environment is the condition and component within the individual that influence occupational performance, such as occupational performance components, core elements of occupational performance etc. The external environment is the structure and condition outside the internal environment, and it is within the environment where occupations are performed that influence occupational performance; they are sensory, physical, social, cultural dimensions that exist in specific time and space. The foundation of occupational performance roles has three dimensions: knowing, doing, and being. Persons with disabilities may have deficits in any of the above dimensions, which cause them to miss that dimension of role performance. For example, a person with severe physical disability may miss the doing dimension of his/her role performance as a self-maintainer. Each role has its own role demands such as expected tasks and routines of a role. Occupational performance for each role requires skills of the some or all of following performance components: bio-mechanical, sensory-motor, cognitive, intra-personal, and inter-personal. In evaluation, therapists can analyze and identify deficits in performance components in these domains for individuals who have affected occupational performance. Interviews using various strategies (cognitive, biomechanical and motor, sensory, intra-personal and interpersonal) further assist therapists in enabling individuals to acquire occupational performance skills and eventually to perform their desired occupational performance role.
Domain of occupation
Rest and sleep
Both space and time dimensions are important in considering occupational performance
Chapparo, C., & Ranka, J. (1997). The Occupational Performance Model (Australia): A description of constructs and structure. In C. Chapparo & J. Ranka (Eds.), Occupational Performance Model (Australia). Monograph 1. Sydney: Occupational Performance Network.
Psychospiritual integration frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes the nature of spirituality, the expression of spirituality in every occupation behavior, the nature of spiritual occupation, and the influence of spirituality and spiritual occupations on health and well-being. This FOR defines that spirituality is constructed of an integral harmony of six qualitatively distinct dimensions and each dimension is considered as an ever-expanding continuum with increasing depth and vastness. The six dimensions are:
The children’s play model views play as necessary and the main occupation of children. An episode of joyful, self-chosen play from children’s perspective is symbolized by a sandcastle diagrammatic model. Play shares similar characteristics with a sandcastle, each component of the sandcastle describes a component of a play episode. Overall, a play episode is like a sandcastle, it is complex and temporary, and constructed for playfulness. It can happen in various contexts, like alone or with family or a group of peers, either spontaneously or planned.
The four-quadrant model of facilitated learning (4QM) is used by teachers and practitioners in selecting effective learning strategies based on changing needs of the learners during acquisition of new skills. When occupational therapists use skill acquisition as intervention strategy, the 4QM provides a way of understanding, planning, and organizing the use of learning strategies. Through acquiring occupational performance components, the goal is for improve performance in the targeted occupation.
This model comprises the complexity and multi-dimensionality of the relation between persons with motor disabilities and their environment. It addresses the personalized accessibility (i.e., unique needs of a person living in a specific environment that is central to this person). It defines the relationship of the person-environment interaction using six concepts, they are:
The Value and Meaning in Occupations (ValMO) aims to address the absence of theoretical structures to aspects of value and meaning in existing models of occupations. It adopts a person-task-environment triad, where occupation is viewed as the result of the transaction. It includes the role narrative in structuring an individual’s experiences embedded in daily occupation, which contributes to an ongoing personal story.