This model is symbolized as an infinity symbol, which emphasizes that independence is a continuum without a start or an end. An individual’s independence can exist at any point within this continuum. Inside the symbol, there are two sides representing two themes, they are personal factors and environmental factors. The lighter (left) side of the model represents personal factors, which consists of personal attributes. These include personal attributes (self-governance, self-reliance, self-confidence, self-realization, self-perception and self-determination), competence (the capability to make decisions and the ability to perform everyday tasks successfully) and autonomy (the ability to make decisions and be self-governed), control (having choice and directing daily activities), and function (both physical and cognitive abilities that contribute to a sense of functional independence). The darker (right) side of the model is environmental factors, which are the features relating to independence that lies outside the person, including culture, context, environment and safety. Occupational therapists understand the unique personal factors of each client and apprehend how they can facilitate independence. This model emphasizes that independence is defined by the client and is discussed and mutually understood between the therapist and the client, which may evolve through therapeutic intervention. The client’s physical and cognitive function and his/her ability to make choices are both considered during the process. Therapists should also consider the client’s environmental factors such as different culture values and change in life context when interpreting independence and enabling goal attainment. This model highlights the components of independence to identify strength and limitations, and to guide therapeutic intervention.
Domain of occupation
This model enables a standardized foundation for the examination of the concept of independence.
Bonikowsky, S., Musto, A., Suteu, K. A., MacKenzie, S., Dennis, D. (2012). Independence: An analysis of a complex and core construct in occupational therapy. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(4), 188-195.
Kawa model is a model that uses the metaphor of a river with different contextual elements to represent human life. The key features of Kawa model include water, river sidewall and bottom, rocks, driftwood, and space between obstructions. Water represents a client’s life flow or life energy. River sidewall and bottom reflects a client’s physical and social contexts which are inseparable with the water flow. Rocks represent the problems or difficult situations that hinder smooth water flow and they are usually difficult to remove.
This model aims to assist practitioners in understanding decision-making process of people with stroke in community participation. It is depicted as a scale with the fulcrum in the middle, with the facilitators and barriers placed on either end with different amount of the impacts (factors placed further from center represents higher impact on decision making). The balance scale represents the concept of weighting thought, desire, or request for going out into the community that from oneself, caregiver, or significant others.
The children’s play model views play as necessary and the main occupation of children. An episode of joyful, self-chosen play from children’s perspective is symbolized by a sandcastle diagrammatic model. Play shares similar characteristics with a sandcastle, each component of the sandcastle describes a component of a play episode. Overall, a play episode is like a sandcastle, it is complex and temporary, and constructed for playfulness. It can happen in various contexts, like alone or with family or a group of peers, either spontaneously or planned.
This framework aims to guide clinical reasoning with respect to describing, analyzing, and selecting a potential strategy for a client’s unique performance problem. It identifies seven general attributes that can be used to describe and organize cognitive strategies. They are: