The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model is a model that emphasizes occupational performance shaped by the interaction between person, environment, and occupation. The person domain includes role, self-concept, cultural background, personality, health, cognition, physical performance, and sensory capabilities. The environmental domain includes physical, cultural, institutional, social, and socio-economic environment. The occupation refers to the groups of tasks that a person engages in and meets his/her self-maintenance, expression and fulfillment. The three domains are dependent and affected by each other. In this model, the overlapping area of the three domains shapes occupational performance dynamically, and also represents the level of congruence of the interaction between the person, environment and occupation. With the higher level of congruence, the quality of occupational performance is increased and vice versa. In addition, the PEO model takes a lifespan perspective and so all three domains and occupational performance would change over life. Therefore, this model can be viewed as an assessment tool to understand and analyze problematic areas that affect clients’ occupational performance or, as an intervention tool, to improve clients’ occupational performance by enhancing the congruence of the three domains.
Domain of occupation
This model can be used as both assessment model and intervention model.
Law, M., Cooper, B. A., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L. (1996). The person-environment-occupation model: A transactive approach to occupational performance. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 9-23.
The Life Balance Model (LBM) focuses on satisfying pattern of healthful, meaningful, and sustainable activities within context of an individual’s current life circumstances. The model purports that the composition of everyday activity should enable people to address these need-based dimensions, they are (1) meeting basic instrumental needs necessary for sustained biological health and physical safety, (2) having rewarding and self-affirming relationships with others, (3) feeling engaged, challenged, and competent, and (4) creating meaning and a positive personal identity.
The Fidler’s Life Style Performance Model focuses on knowing and understanding a person’s total activity repertoire within the context relevant to his/her life. This model provides practitioners a complete view of the client and his/her environment. It aims to bridge the gaps among the practice, philosophic constructs of holism, personal relevance, and quality of life.
The Model of Occupational Wholeness focuses on the four dimensions of occupation: doing, being, becoming, and belonging, as well as how these dimensions lead to an individual’s wholeness, health, and wellbeing. This model is illustrated by triangles. A black proportionate triangle illustrates the hypothetical ideal relationship between doing (in the middle), being, become, and becoming (each is a corner of the triangle).
The Occupational Performance Model (Australia) is a model proposing that people fulfill their occupational performance roles by engaging in routines, tasks and activities, in the domains of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest, in the process responding to internal and/or external demands of the environment. This model assumes that engagement in occupations provides the sense of competence, autonomy, temporal organization, and meaning of existence to individuals. It focuses on activation of person-environment relationship through participation in occupations.
The Lived Environment Life Quality Model (LELQ) aims to explicate the ecological complexities in using occupations to optimize quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This model focuses on factors that affect clients’ opportunity in occupational engagement, mainly on the social and physical environmental supports and barriers. It has two main domains, including the lived-environment domain (specifically for assessment and intervention) and the Quality of Life (QoL) domain (specifically for intervention goals and outcome).