The social participation frame of reference emphasizes the power of emotion to motivate and engage children’s social participation. Early relationship with parents provides the foundation for children’s social development, because children give meaning to their own emotions and learn strategies in regulating their emotional states based on how others and environment responses to their emotions. At the same time, the children regulate the caregivers’ behaviors and then they learn how to regulate their own and others’ emotions during future social interactions. In this frame of reference, it is assumed that children with disabilities may have decreased ability to modulate their physiological, cognitive, and/or physical states. Therefore, children with disabilities are more likely to exhibit difficulty in regulating emotional states during interactions with caregivers and their siblings/peers in reciprocal play. They are more likely to be disorganized and inattention to tasks and so interact with adults in a more negative manner. Interrupted family routine due to difficult temperament also decreased the opportunity for a child to participate in family social activities. All of these contributes to reduced opportunity learn the skills for social participation, which may cause children with disabilities to be more likely to be rejected in other interactions. Understanding and promoting emotional engagement is critical to motivate caregivers and children. This frame of reference identifies indications of function and dysfunction in seven areas that affect social functioning, including temperament adaptation, emotional regulation, family habits and routines, environmental supports, social participation in school, environment for peer interaction, and peer interaction. In assessment, social demands from caregiver and teachers are identified, and so do children’s actual participation and their own perception. Interventions include both caregiver/peer and children, through daily activities and structured activities, to promote the children’s social participation.
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
Behavioral, social learning, and cognitive theories are adapted in this frame of reference
Olson, L. J. (2010). A frame of reference to enhance social participation. In P. Kramer & J. Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of reference for pediatric occupational therapy (3rd ed., pp. 306-348). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The Synthesis of Child, Occupational, Performance, and Environmental-In Time (SCOPE-IT) model aims to enhance children’s occupations and occupational performance. It considers children’s growth and maturity in occupational engagement by the course of development. Through participating in daily activities, children develop their occupations and enhance their performance. The type and time devoted in an occupation differs in one’s life course. As a result, the SCOPE-IT model has six assumptions,
Acquiring motor skill is a process that requires practices, feedback, and involvement of the learner. This frame of reference employs several principles from learning theory. It focuses on the child’s ability, characteristics of the task, skills required, environment, and regulatory conditions. Regulatory conditions are aspects of the environment that determine movement specifics, which are described in a continuum between closed and open tasks.
The Sensory Integration (SI) frame of reference focuses on how the interaction between the sensory systems including auditory, vestibular, proprioceptive, tactile, and visual systems, provides integrated information that contributes to a child’s learning and adaptive behaviors. The key consideration is that children have the abilities to make adaptive responses to constantly changing sensory environments. The sensory integrative abilities include sensory modulation, sensory discrimination, postural-ocular control, praxis, bilateral integration, and sequencing.
This model consists of a continuum with five steps, each facilitating change for subsequent stages of mental health in families that are socially isolated. The five steps are (1) developmental casework, (2) mutual support, (3) coalitions of mutual interest, (4) pro-active community participation, and (5) social movements. Development casework is an individual therapy focusing on occupational behavior and role acquisition through participating in daily activities.
The Dunn’s Model of Sensory Processing proposes four basic patterns of sensory processing which are emerged from the interaction of the neurological threshold and self-regulation. Neurological threshold is a personal range of threshold for noticing and responding to different sensory events in everyday life. People who have low sensory threshold would notice and respond to stimuli more often because their neurological system activates easier and more readily to sensory events.