Occupational adaptation theory describes a process of internal adaptation. It aims to guide occupational therapy practitioners to facilitate clients’ ability to make adaptations to engage in meaningful activities. This theory emphasizes the interaction between the person and the environment. It states that the person consists of three systems (sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial) that interact with occupational environment (physical, social, and cultural). There are two types of adaptation energy for occupational adaptation; they are primary (active when highly focused on the task) and secondary (active when the task is sophisticated and creative). Adaptive response behaviors are classified as primitive or hyperstable (all person systems are frozen and no adaptive behavior), transitional or hypermobile (random behaviors in person systems), and mature (goal-directed behaviors leading to adaptive response). When there is a press for mastery that results in an occupational challenge, people response to challenge and adaptive response generation subprocess occurs. This subprocess is the place where occupational therapy interventions play an essential part. Internal adaptation is enhanced through using self-selected role and goal to guide intervention. Occupational therapists evaluate clients’ ability in activities and identify facilitating and hindering factors. Intervention planning focuses on enhancing clients’ capabilities in reaching the activity goals. After adaptation response generation subprocess which results in an occupational response, the adaptive response evaluation subprocess evaluates the performance in terms of relative mastery (i.e., efficient, effective, and satisfying to self and society). This subprocess leads to learning and influences performance. Occupational therapists allow clients to interact meaningfully with the environment and to eventually increase internal adaptation capabilities.
Domain of occupation
It aims to provide occupational therapy practitioners with a structure that guides assessment and intervention.
Schkade, J. K. & Schultz, S. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach to contemporary practice, Part 1. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(9), 829-837.
Schultz, S. & Schkade, J. K. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach to contemporary practice, Part 2. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(9), 917-926.
The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively.
Occupational Adaptation Model (OAM) is proposed as a frame of reference that aims to integrate the two main domains (occupation and adaptation) for occupational therapy. It defines occupation as self-perceived meaningful activities that require active participation and lead to a product.
Sensory Integration Theory aims to explain behaviors, plan intervention, and predict behavioral change through intervention, and provide specific intervention strategies to remediate the underlying sensory issues that affect functional performance. It purposes therapeutic interventions that incorporate sensation to affect multi-sensory perception to influence learning and behavior, as the central nervous system does not process sensory information in isolation.
This model is a developmental model of three basic dimensions of self: biological self (starting when an infant first feels the need for food and warmth), social self (starting when an infant begins to perceive persons other than self), and temporal self (starting when an adolescence’s thoughts and aspirations for the future begin to motivate thinking and behavior).
The behavioral frame of reference (FOR) emphasizes on the use of behavioral modification to shape behaviors, which purports to increase the tendency of adaptive behaviors or to decrease the probability of maladaptive learned behaviors. The key concepts in this FOR include: