Occupational Adaptation Model (OAM) is proposed as a frame of reference that aims to integrate the two main domains (occupation and adaptation) for occupational therapy. It defines occupation as self-perceived meaningful activities that require active participation and lead to a product. Adaptation is one’s adaptive response to meet an occupational challenge, when ordinary response is insufficient to master the activity, and is evaluated in relation to the concept “relative mastery” (i.e., evaluating occupational performance from the client’s viewpoint). The increase and maintenance of competence in activities are described as an interaction between a person and his/her environment. Occupational adaptation process begins with the environmental demands for mastery in activities. This OAM assumes that individuals have the desire to master activity and gain the environmental control. It emphasizes on the person’s interaction with the natural setting for occupational performance. With this frame of reference, the patient should actively participate and engage in goal setting, treatment planning, and evaluation. In the assessment, questions based on the OAM are asked to identify the person’s occupation environments, roles, and meaningful activities. During treatment planning, the client chooses meaningful activities that he/she would like to master. Treatment focuses on the self-chosen activities and the client’s environment and roles. The evaluation will be based on the concept of relative mastery.
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
Client’s active participation is required during the entire intervention process.
Schkade, J. K., & Schultz, S. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach for contemporary practice: I. American Journal of Occupational Therapy,46(9), 829-837.