Occupational Adaptation Model (OAM) is proposed as a frame of reference that aims to integrate the two main domains (occupation and adaptation) for occupational therapy. It defines occupation as self-perceived meaningful activities that require active participation and lead to a product. Adaptation is one’s adaptive response to meet an occupational challenge, when ordinary response is insufficient to master the activity, and is evaluated in relation to the concept “relative mastery” (i.e., evaluating occupational performance from the client’s viewpoint). The increase and maintenance of competence in activities are described as an interaction between a person and his/her environment. Occupational adaptation process begins with the environmental demands for mastery in activities. This OAM assumes that individuals have the desire to master activity and gain the environmental control. It emphasizes on the person’s interaction with the natural setting for occupational performance. With this frame of reference, the patient should actively participate and engage in goal setting, treatment planning, and evaluation. In the assessment, questions based on the OAM are asked to identify the person’s occupation environments, roles, and meaningful activities. During treatment planning, the client chooses meaningful activities that he/she would like to master. Treatment focuses on the self-chosen activities and the client’s environment and roles. The evaluation will be based on the concept of relative mastery.
Frame of reference
Domain of occupation
Client’s active participation is required during the entire intervention process.
Schkade, J. K., & Schultz, S. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach for contemporary practice: I. American Journal of Occupational Therapy,46(9), 829-837.
Occupational adaptation theory describes a process of internal adaptation. It aims to guide occupational therapy practitioners to facilitate clients’ ability to make adaptations to engage in meaningful activities. This theory emphasizes the interaction between the person and the environment. It states that the person consists of three systems (sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial) that interact with occupational environment (physical, social, and cultural).
The occupational adaptation frame of reference (FOR) focuses on the adaptation process when a person encounters occupational challenges. Three basic elements of this FOR are the person (including sensorimotor, cognitive, psychosocial system), the occupational environment (including work, play and leisure, and self-maintenance) and the interaction between these two elements. Each of the elements is consistently influenced by a constant, respectively.
The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) is an occupational performance model, which is evolved from the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP). The CMOP-E includes three main components: person, environment, and occupation. In this model, the inner part represents “Person”, and its center is the spirituality of a person. The other components surrounding a person’s spirituality are affective, physical, and cognitive abilities.
The Model of Playfulness suggests that playfulness can be determined within any transaction of the evaluation of three elements, each of which can be represented as a continuum. The three elements are (1) source of motivation (from intrinsic to extrinsic), (2) perception of control (from internal to external), and (3) the suspension of reality (from free to not free). Intrinsic motivation, such as mastery or pure sensation of movement, is the aspect(s) of activity itself that provides motivation for the individual to involve in an activity.
This model is based on the concepts of metacognition and awareness to view the relationship between the metacognition and awareness as a dynamic process. This model differentiates between one’s self knowledge and awareness that are pre-existing or stored within long-term memory (or called metacognitive knowledge) and the knowledge and awareness that is activated during a task (or called on-line awareness).